Philadelphia Spring Garden Street Greenway

13 06 2013

Check out the Spring Garden Street Greenway: a 2.2-mile connection between the Schuylkill River and the Delaware River. When completed, the Spring Garden Street Greenway will be one of the most vibrant streets and commercial corridors in the City of Philadelphia, and a quieter and safer street along which to drive, bike, or walk. The Greenway will feature a linear park and urban trail with a new bikeway that is separate from traffic. The Greenway will also offer additional recreation and commuting space for walkers, joggers and cyclists and will incorporate stormwater infrastructure to manage runoff more sustainably. Imagine the transformation…

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How the Highway Killed Washington DC’s Waterfront

13 05 2013

In the shadow of the I-395 overpass, Washington, D.C.’s Maine Avenue Fish Market looks, sounds, and smells like any fish market in any commercial port. Barge-mounted stalls line an open pedestrian and parking plaza, fishmongers broadcast their specials and the air is ripe with the fumes of fresh fish and idling diesel engines. What sets this scene apart from similar ones in other port cities are those diesel engines; they belong to trucks, not trawlers. At the Maine Avenue Fish Market, for all its maritime ambiance, seafood arrives by land.


The fish market exemplifies Washington’s disengagement from its waterfront.

On paper the Southwest quadrant, situated to the east of the Potomac, was meant to play a critical role in the developing city. The master planner envisioned low-lying Southwest as a grand harbor and gateway to Washington in a world dominated by enterprises of the sea. On L’Enfant’s map, the Capitol and its monumental surrounds were projected to be the focal point, not only of the processional expanse of what is now known as the National Mall, but also of boulevards extending to the Southwest waterfront.

Off paper, L’Enfant’s grand vision for the federal city was quickly forgotten. Despite a lengthy frontage along the Potomac and Anacostia, the two prominent rivers play only minor roles in the life of the city and its evolution.

The reason is partly historical. As the Industrial Revolution unfolded, the capital’s limited industry and infrastructure requiring access to the water found ample frontage in Georgetown. While cities like Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York overwhelmed their water’s edge with industry and commerce, the bulk of Washington’s waterfront remained idle.

Then, there was geography. Southwest is low and swampy, sitting at the bottom of a bowl on whose rim the Capitol and other important structures were slowly rising. Over time, the District’s Southwest quadrant had become the locus for the city’s least desirable infrastructure, industry, and populace.

For Southwest, the first decades of the twentieth century are viewed largely as something of a heyday. Washington’s need for transient housing was increasing and Southwest was affordable. Political and economic change in Europe brought a new wave of immigrants, and as war broke out worldwide, an influx of temporary workers arrived to support the American war effort.

Immigrants found housing and community in Southwest, establishing churches and civic groups that still exist today. In 1922, the area where the Jefferson Memorial now sits was known as Tidal Basin Beach. East Potomac Park was the location of more than twenty different recreational activities and the site of publicity junket for silent film empresario Mack Sennett’s new movie “Bathing Beauties.”

Things got even worse when the city dropped a freeway into southwest. The highway was part of an ambitious urban renewal program, designed for the city in 1951 as part of a plan for an inner loop ring road. In reality, the nine lanes of elevated highway severed the southwest quadrant of the District from the rest of the city.

I-395 was designed to be part of a larger inner beltway planned for the District. The Inner Loop, as it was called, was part of a regional planning trend towards ring roads – proposed and in some cases built – around and through America’s cities. In the District, only the Whitehurst freeway on the Georgetown waterfront, and the Southwest and Southeast Freeway portions of the loop were built. These highways were planned to facilitate movement to and between the new suburbs developing on the periphery of major cities.

For Southwest quadrant of the District, the construction of the highway was a tourniquet that squeezed off the flow of boulevards and streets.

Maryland Avenue, once a primary artery of the neighborhood, now ends in a barrier of office and hotels that abuts the freeway. Smaller streets not severed are served by overpasses to the west (where the more expensive real estate is) and underpasses in the east, where land values fall off. Where Southwest terminates and Southeast begins, the Freeway is exclusively overhead. Like other well-known inner-city freeways – the Gowanus, and Cross-Bronx in New York City are good examples – the trajectory of Southwest Freeway has dug a real estate value trough. The area is replete with surface parking lots for federal workers,  a federal power station, and property yards, some vacant, some filled with equipment and vehicles.


There have been some efforts to reconnect Washington and its waterfront. In the 1970s, the city built a pedestrian walk along the waterfront.

Visitors would arrive by car via the eleven lanes of traffic on Maine Avenue and Water Street, and park in the expansive lots that parallel these streets. This car-centric access via repeated parallel strips of macadem sets up a hard edge separation that mirrors the highway and rail lines to the north. Menacing and unattractive for local residents heading to the waterfront by foot, the gamut of car traffic is further aggravated by exit ramps off of I-395. For pedestrians coming from L’Enfant Plaza and the National Mall there is no straight-forward connection at all.

This is the condition in Southwest today. The hard edge of the public promenade continues beyond the walls of Fort McNair. Moving up the Anacostia, however, the shoreline reverts to a natural edge, but with only limited access. Here L’Enfant’s ragged city fabric still terminates at the water at First, Second, and Half Streets. The blocks that front the water here are occupied by an outlying building of Fort McNair’s National Defense University, a public marina, a power plant, and a municipal scrapyard and cement factory. Apart from the Marina, there are no spaces for public recreation and the interior streets between Fort McNair and South Capitol are exclusively industrial and commercial.

But with an innovative redesign, we think we can reclaim the waterfront. What we propose is an urban vision for Southwest that reestablishes connections and generates new ones at the level of the alley, block, quadrant and region. In addition to eliminating the transportation canyon dug by I-395, we propose interventions that would recapture the waterfront by restoring east Potomac park Fort McNair and a ferry terminal as a cultural hub.

The current main areas of use of East Potomac Park are occupied by a golf course and an indoor tennis facility at Hains Point. The Park is also the location of the headquarters buildings of the National Park Service National Capital Region, the U.S. Park Police, and National Mall and Memorial Parks, as well as park maintenance facilities, a U.S. Park Police substation and visitor transportation operational facilities. In our proposal, the park becomes a public green, accessible by several bridges and a new Metro stop. A ferry terminal will provide commuter and tourist traffic from Maryland and Virginia, tourist rides to various attractions and access to all forms of public transit.

Renderings from Studio Twenty Seven’s proposal for a new southwest.
Fort McNair is replaced in this plan as a New Mall, providing space for memorials, monuments and music venues. Extending the National Mall further into Southwest is not a new idea. At the turn of the century, the original proposed location of the National Arboretum was in Southwest, a logical location in which a great variety of trees and shrubs could be planted along the water’s edge without detracting from the natural appearance of East Potomac Park.

Rather than impose yet another route to patch areas together as previous master plans have attempted, the addition of a ferry terminal attempts to serve as a mediator of routes to the existing urban fabric and the other aspects of the proposal for Southwest. The terminal becomes the hub of all forms of public transportation and social gathering at a new destination point. Located adjacent to the New Mall, the ferry terminal is both a destination point and an access point to all other major destinations in the greater D.C. area. It disperses and collects various forms of transportation and encourages social activities at the site. The new ferry terminal will provide access to the other sites of the proposal as well as the current existing major points of destination in the greater DC area.

We see the thoughtful redevelopment of Southwest as a process that must take into consideration forces of change that are only just becoming apparent. Our research and exploration is not a finite process, and our proposition is not a discrete object, like the city itself it will continuously change, update, and reframe.

All images courtesy of Studio Twenty Seven. LINK TO ARTICLE

John K. Burke and Craig Cook are employed at Studio Twenty Seven Architecture in Washington DC.  The Studio has recently published a book entitled Southwest DC: (A)Mending L’Enfant’s Plan documenting their research into the history of urban development in this quadrant of the city from the introduction of L’Enfant’s plan in 1791 to the opening of Nationals’ stadium in 2008.





Q&A with James Corner

11 04 2013

Q&A with James Corner (Principal, james corner field operations; and Waterfront Seattle lead designer).

An interview by Mark Stiles of the Puget Sound Business Journal.

Read the full article here.

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Elliott Bay Seawall Project: Below the Surface”

6 12 2012

“Elliott Bay Seawall Project:  Below the Surface,” tonight at WSDOT‘s Milepost 31!

Jennifer Wieland, Seattle Department of Transportation Project Manager, addresses how the City Of Seattle is working to improve this vital piece of infrastructure, while also restoring fish habitat and connections to the water. 6-6:30pm. Free parking available for visitors via First Thursday Seattle

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Waterfront Design: Lessons from Denmark

29 11 2012
2012 November 7

by Lyle Bicknell

< Inventive activators: Harbor swimming dock >

Thanks to a generous grant from the Scan|Design Foundation I’ve had the privilege of spending the last two months in Denmark. It was an excellent opportunity to examine, in detail, successful waterfront redevelopment in Copenhagen and elsewhere. The Danes have a well earned reputation for creating high quality, inviting and lively waterfronts—and even their mistakes (which aren’t many) can be informative.

Cities around the world are transforming industrial and utilitarian harborfronts into great places for people. As Seattle embarks on its own waterfront transformation this is an opportune time to explore these global solutions. Here are five lessons from Denmark:

< Public Trampoline >

Lesson One ACTIVATE ACTIVATE ACTIVATE The best public spaces offer a range of attractions from passive to active, high brow to low. Seattleites have a long running aversion to mixing our public spaces with commercial uses, but it may be time to reconsider. In Copenhagen outdoor cafes, food kiosks and other vendors add vitality and interest–animating public spaces around the clock and throughout the year.

Lesson Two AARHUS–A CAUTIONARY TALE Today, the Alaskan Way Viaduct is such a huge, loud and unpleasant presence it is difficult to imagine what our waterfront will be without it. All we can easily envision is that it will be better. But a generation from now few will remember the viaduct and its noxiousness, and our waterfront will have to stand on its own merit. To get a better feel for what that will be like, it is worth examining Aarhus, Denmark’s second largest city. Today central Aarhus is separated from its waterfront by a surprisingly noisy, heavily trafficked, five lane arterial.

This is a very similar condition to the proposed post-viaduct Alaskan Way, which at 66 feet wide and with an expected 30,000 vehicles a day, will be one of the widest and busiest streets in Seattle’s center city.

To avoid replacing one barrier to our waterfront with another we must design superior pedestrian connections across Alaskan Way—with elements such as wide crosswalks, long pedestrian crossing phases and high quality pedestrian amenities.

Lesson Three QUALITY OVER QUANITITY Given the huge opportunity to transform Seattle’s central waterfront there is a natural desire to do everything at once. Some elements like the rebuilt sea wall and new Alaskan Way will obviously need to be constructed in one phase, but the Danes show that high quality materials and fine grain design gestures are the key to successful places. If resources are limited, slow implementation beats the quick and expedient.

Lesson Four  BE TRUE TO PLACE What makes places memorable–and likely to pass the test of time–are those that are unique and genuine. An excellent example is Copenhagen’s new national playhouse designed by Lundgaard & Tranberg. The structure is supported by massive upper level trusses that not only reduce the need for interior columns but also serve as a potent allegory to the earlier shipping cranes that once lined Copenhagen’s industrial harbor. Rather than facing the street, the building further responds to its maritime context by orienting its entrance, lobby (and outdoor café) to the harborfront.

< Danish National Playhouse >

Lesson Five BEWARE THE PHOTOSHOP SWINDLE Copenhagen based Gehl Architects, an international authority on creating successful public spaces, warns against those designers whose illustrations promise public space filled with mobs of happy users when in reality the spaces end up lifeless and deserted. The most successful spaces invite you in–and entice you to stay–with a broad range of real and well thought out activities.

The removal of the Alaskan Way Viaduct gives Seattle the rare opportunity to transform our waterfront. Drawing lessons from elsewhere will guarantee our success.

>>>

Lyle Bicknell is principal urban designer at the City of Seattle’s Department of Planning and Development.  He recently returned from a two month sabbatical in Denmark sponsored the Scan|Design foundation.





What’s beneath your feet?

9 11 2012

Beginning the week of October 22, SDOT will install a “Light Penetrating Surfaces Study” on Pier 62/63 as part of the Elliott Bay Seawall Project. Three test surfaces will be installed in the pier’s wooden decking: steel grating, glass planks, and a light tube. These surfaces could help increase the amount of natural light reaching the water of Elliott Bay, an important part of a healthy ecosystem. By minimizing the light to dark contrast that overwater structures – like piers and walkways – create, light penetrating surfaces can improve habitat diversity and salmon migrationalong our shoreline.

Each of these surfaces could be installed along the future seawall. They are being compared to understand their effectiveness at transmitting light. Take a walk to Pier 62/63 to see these light penetrating surfaces in action! And the project team would love to hear your feedback. Do you like the look of one type over another? Is one easier to walk on or around? What questions do you have?





Understanding Habitat

9 10 2012

An introduction to in-water, seawall habitat

Habitat restoration along Seattle’s seawall

To make life better for juvenile salmonids and other marine creatures, the City is designing a shallow, lighted migratory corridor along the seawall to enhance habitat for juvenile salmon and other marine life.  The City is planning to restore habitat by:

Elliott Bay Seawall:  An important salmon migration corridor

Tens of thousands of salmon migrate along the Elliott Bay Seawall and then up the Green/Duwamish River and its tributaries every year to spawn.  After beginning their lives in freshwater rivers, juvenile salmon then swim down the Green/Duwamish River to enter Elliott Bay in the spring and summer – along the Elliott Bay Seawall. Because the Elliott Bay Seawall Project area is such an important link in the salmon migratory route, improving salmon habitat within Elliott Bay is pivotal to the success of regional salmon recovery.

Historically, the eastern shoreline of Elliott Bay looked much like other unaltered shorelines across Puget Sound—a bluff-backed beach with intertidal marshes and mudflats.  The mudflats and gently sloping beaches of Elliott Bay were home to a bounty of birds, fish, and marine invertebrates.

When the seawall was built, the nearshore was cleared to make room for piers, roads, and buildings. With the lack of typical nearshore habitat, salmon migrating along the waterfront can become confused and vulnerable to predators.  Current challenges that juvenile salmon encounter along the seawall include:

  • Large piers, which cast shadows on the water, limiting the ability of aquatic vegetation to grow and making it difficult for juvenile salmon to navigate along the seawall.
  • Vertical hard surfacesmake it difficult for marine invertebrates, an important food source for salmon, to colonize the seawall.
  • The seawall currently lacks an intertidal zone.  In intertidal zones, land is above water at low tide and below water at high tide.  Intertidal zones provide outstanding sources of food and shelter for juvenile salmon.
  • The seawall lacks bluffs with riparian vegetation, a typically important source of habitat structure, refuge, and food for salmon.

Despite these challenging aspects, today’s seawall still provides a home to many species of aquatic life.

  • The naturally lighted areas between piers along the central waterfront are home to many types of aquatic vegetation, such as sea lettuce, and marine invertebrates like barnacles, mussels, and sponges.
  • Biologists have identified eight species of salmon, and many other species of fish, that use seawall habitats

Researching how to improve habitat

As part of the seawall replacement program, the City of Seattle is committed to restoring a functional salmon migration corridor along Seattle’s waterfront.  The Elliott Bay Seawall Project has been researching how best aquatic habitat can be restored.

Since 2008, four major studies have been conducted along Seattle’s waterfront:

  • Habitat monitoring at Olympic Sculpture Park – Researchers are monitoring how marine life is responding to habitat restoration along the park’s shoreline.
  • Exploring habitat-friendly surfaces – Researchers are monitoring test panels with new possible surfaces for the seawall to understand which surfaces are best for marine life.
  • Habitat mapping – Through underwater video and SCUBA dives, biologists are mapping what plants and animals can currently be found along the seawall.
  • Examining juvenile salmon migration patterns – To understand how habitat restoration along the new seawall could help juvenile salmon migration, researchers are studying current migration patterns to learn how juveniles migrate and how limited habitat along the seawall currently affects their migration patterns.







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